ItemBuilding resilience in African hotspots : learning from collaborative research(Springer, Cham, 2020-12-15) Czunyi, Sarah; Currie-Alder, BruceBased on collaborative research conducted across 15 countries in Africa and South Asia, the chapter addresses three questions: 1) what is the difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees of global warming? Many parts of Africa, especially semi-arid lands, are warming faster than the global average with near-term consequences for agriculture, energy, and water; 2) how do gender, location and social difference shape who is vulnerable to climate change? Where someone lives also shapes their exposure, while the decision to migrate can diversify risk and alter household dynamics; 3) what is the effectiveness of adaptation from the lived experience of people and communities? ItemAre large-scale collaborations worth it? : a longitudinal study of researchers’ perceptions over a 5 year program CARIAA-ASSAR(2021-09-01) Scodanibbio, Lucia; Kemp, Georgina CundillThe paper looks at experiences of participants in the large-scale, five-year collaborative research project, Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR), midway and at the end of the project. It explores the benefits and limitations of transdisciplinary collaborations and the extent to which these can be outweighed through better programme design. The Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) – ASSAR project supported the involvement of more than 250 researchers and practitioners. Figure 7 depicts the top five most cited challenges from each survey. The University of Cape Town was project lead, and housed the project management unit. ItemSocial vulnerability to environmental hazards in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, India and Bangladesh(Elsevier Ltd., 2020-11-21) Das, Shouvik; Hazra, Sugata; Anisul, Haque; Rahman, Munsur; Nicholls, Robert J.; Ghosh, Amit; Ghosh, Tuhin; Salehin, Mashfiqus; de Campos, Ricardo SafraThis detailed study provides the first analysis of social vulnerability across the entire coastal delta within Bangladesh and India. Three main conclusions emerge: 1) there is a cross-shore social vulnerability gradient throughout the delta with more vulnerable people living near the coast 2) non-agricultural development and economic expansion have reduced vulnerability significantly 3) shocks due to major cyclone landfall appear to have increased vulnerability in the impacted areas. Section 1 identifies the gaps in literature; Section 2 provides detailed administrative, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the study area; Section 3 describes data and methods; Section 4-6 present results, discussion and conclusions. ItemUsing of landsat images for land use changes detection in the ecosystem : a case study of the Senegal river delta(2016) Toure, M. A.; Ndiaye, M. L.; Traore, V. B.; Faye, G.; Cisse, B.; Wade, C. T.The aim is to reconstruct the history of land use change in the Senegal River delta. Landsat images acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1988, 1999 and 2006, and 2014 are used to make the diachronic study. The Senegal River delta (study area) corresponds to the St. Louis, Louga, Podor, Dagana localities where the dynamic of land cover is very particular compared to national and most sub-region dynamics. The paper covers use of Landsat images to correct for land classifications, information differences, and accuracy of modelling. The study maps changes in order to locate types of changes, and measure their areal extent. ItemGovernance challenges in addressing climatic concerns in Coastal Asia and Africa(MDPI, 2019-04-10) Hossen, M. Anwar; Chowdhury, Arif; Hans, Asha; Tagoe, Cynthia Addoquaye; Allan, Andrew; Nelson, Winfred; Patel, Amrita; Mondal, M. Shahjahan; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Quaye, Ruth M.; Das, ShouvikLaws, policies and programs can fall short of addressing the needs of climate-affected people, especially in natural resource-dependent societies in Asia and Africa. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of existing policy documents affecting people living in one large delta (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna in Bangladesh), two medium-sized deltas (Indian Bengal delta—part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Mahanadi in India), and a small-sized delta (Volta in Ghana). National laws, policies and programs were assessed in the context of climate change adaptation through three lenses: human rights, natural resource management and disaster response. ItemPinning down social vulnerability in Sindh Province, Pakistan : from narratives to numbers, and back again(John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2018-11-19) Mustafa, Daanish; Gioli, Giovanna; Memon, Manzoor; Noshirwani, Meher; Idris, Iffat; Ahmed, NadeemThis paper reflects critically on a vulnerability assessment process at the household and community levels in Sindh Province (Pakistan) using a quantitative vulnerabilities and capacities index (VCI). Note that the index can be used in conjunction with qualitative assessments, but not instead of them. Results show that vulnerability is more a function of historico-political economic factors and cultural ethos than biophysical changes wrought by climate. The emerging gendered vulnerability picture reveals extremes of poverty and lack of capacity to cope with contemporary environmental and social stresses. This paper validates a methodology for measuring social vulnerability, undertaken in 62 villages across four agro-ecological/livelihood zones. ItemImpacts of 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming on regional rainfall and temperature change across India(IOP Publishing Ltd, 2019-11-04) Yaduvanshi, Aradhana; Zaroug, Modathir; Bendapudi, Ramkumar; New, MarkFor a country like India with a primarily agrarian economy, limiting warming to 1.5 °C leads to two key questions: what does the global rise of temperature (1.5 °C and 2.0 °C) mean at the regional scale? and; what are the implications of keeping warming at or below 1.5 °C in particular for agriculture and water resources? Regional level analysis can provide a more segregated picture than a global one based on combined metrics. Details of this study show the distribution of predicted values of changes in regional annual rainfall for the 29 States of India obtained using the 78 General Circulation Model (GCM) models Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5) and 105 GCM models (RCP 4.5). ItemHarnessing diverse knowledge and belief systems to adapt to climate change in semi-arid rural Africa(Elsevier B.V., 2019-05-14) Spear, Dian; Selato, Janet C.; Mosime, Bonolo; Nyamwanza, Admire M.This study in Bobirwa subdistrict in Botswana investigates the role of traditional norms and religious beliefs in the use of place-based and national meteorological forecasting to inform adaptative behaviour. Results show farmers use diverse combinations of sources of information. As well, some religious beliefs and traditional norms prevent the use of national meteorological forecasts. To enable more successful adaptation, climate information needs to integrate place-based and national meteorological information. Recommendations on appropriate agricultural practices can be developed together with, and disseminated through traditional and religious leaders. ItemExploring methodological approaches to assess climate change vulnerability and adaptation : reflections from using life history approaches(Springer, 2019-11-26) Singh, Chandni; Tebboth, Mark; Spear, Dian; Ansah, Prince; Mensah, AdelinaIn this paper, researchers draw on life history (LH) interviews across four countries (Kenya, Namibia, Ghana, and India) to offer a way of expanding current methodological approaches on vulnerability and adaptation. LHs challenge assumptions about how and why people respond to multiple risks, and offer a nuanced understanding of adaptation processes. They provide insight into the multiple and interacting nature of drivers of behaviour; they highlight intra-household dynamics; and, LHs support explorations of past decisions, present situations, and future aspirations. There is a tendency to identify barriers and describe which types they are, rather than how they interact and shape adaptive responses. ItemVertical integration for climate change adaptation in the water sector : lessons from decentralisation in Africa and India(Springer, 2019-12-03) Ziervogel, Gina; Satyal, Poshendra; Basu, Ritwika; Mensah, Adelina; Chandni, Singh; Hegga, Salma; Abu, Thelma ZulfawuDespite intentions, decentralisation in the water sector has not often resulted in enhancing local decision-making. Vertical integration, which creates strategic linkages between national and sub-national levels, is being promoted as another strategy for climate change adaptation. Based on four case studies in semi-arid regions in Africa and India, the paper focuses on participation and flexibility, two central components of climate change adaptation, and considers how decentralisation has enhanced or undermined these. Coordination and collaboration across all levels and sectors (“cross-scalar”) need to be improved to strengthen adaptation to climate variability and change. ItemEffects of droughts on vegetation condition and ecosystem service delivery in data-poor areas : a case of Bobirwa sub-district, Limpopo Basin and Botswana(MDPI, 2020-10-04) Mugari, Ephias; Masundire, Hillary; Bolaane, MaitseoFindings of this study indicate that the increased frequency and severity of droughts is diminishing natural vegetation, crop productivity and several provisioning ecosystem services (ES) through moisture stress and drought-induced agricultural expansions. There is an urgent need for smallholder irrigation development in Bobirwa sub-district (Botswana) to improve crop productivity and reduce the drought-induced conversion of woodlands to agriculture. The study examined drought dynamics and impacts on vegetation and ES in the semi-arid Limpopo Basin of Botswana. Weather station precipitation, remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and participatory mapping exercises provided data for the analyses. ItemPeople who once had 40 cattle are left only with fences : coping with persistent drought in Awash, Ethiopia(Springer Nature, 2019-11-14) Camfield, Laura; Leavy, Jen; Endale, Senait; Tefera, TilahunControl over land and water resources is critical in semi-arid environments. The paper uses the example of the semi-arid Awash region in North-Eastern Ethiopia, which has experienced drought and alien plant invasion. It explores how men and women adapt using changes in household structures, negotiating intra-household relations and resource access in contexts of social and environmental transition. Findings show the Afar people are shifting from pastoralism into agriculture and salaried employment. To improve the wellbeing of those heavily dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods, improved primary health services and strengthened productive and social safety net programs would help households recover from environmental shocks and stresses. ItemDifferential household vulnerability to climatic and non-climatic stressors in semi-arid areas of Mali, West Africa(Taylor & Francis Group, 2020-12-10) Segnon, Alcade C.; Totin, Edmond; Zougmoré, Robert B.; Lokossou, Jourdain C.; Thompson-Hall, Mary; Ofori, Benjamin O.; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G.; Gordon, ChristopherThis study adopted a ‘vulnerability patterns’ framework that included both climatic and non-climatic stressors to analyze differential household vulnerability in semi-arid regions (SARs) of Mali. Findings showed that while drought was the most mentioned climate-related stressor, households were also exposed to a diversity of environmental and socio-economic stressors, including food scarcity, livestock disease, labour unavailability, crop damage, and erratic rainfall patterns. Availability of productive household members, household resource endowments, livelihood diversification and social networks were the main discriminant factors of household adaptive capacity, while challenges relating to food and water security make households more sensitive to stressors. ItemVillagization and access to water resources in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia : implications for climate change adaptation(Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-12-17) Degefu, Mekonnen Adnew; Assen, Mohammed; Satyal, Poshendra; Jessica, BuddsSince the 1970s, the Government of Ethiopia has implemented villagization, whereby nomadic pastoralist groups are supported to develop sedentary lifestyles and livelihoods. Recently, villagization was reintroduced for arid and semi-arid regions as a strategy for adaptation to climate change, and as part of the country’s green growth agenda. The paper evaluates to what extent this phase of villagization has contributed to adaptation strategies among pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. It argues that villagization may play a role in some aspects of adaptation, if programmes address the drivers of livelihood change, and embed equity and rights. ItemAssessing differential vulnerability of communities in the agrarian context in two districts of Maharashtra, India(Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-03-23) Kuchimanchi, Bhavana Rao; Nazareth, Divya; Bendapudi, Ramkumar; Awasthi, Suchita; D'Souza, MarcellaThe study presents how agrarian livelihoods in rural Maharashtra are transforming to adapt to the changing climate, and non-climatic drivers such as depletion of groundwater, land fragmentation, lack of post-harvest structures, and disappearing and deteriorating common property resources. Caste and social standing play a significant role in access to resources, land ownership, livelihoods choices and approaches – impacting people’s vulnerability to climate change. The study concludes that in order to develop feasible and sustainable interventions, vulnerability assessments need to be conducted at lower scales as climate risks vary even within small clusters of villages. ItemGendered vulnerability and adaptation in Hindu-Kush Himalayas : research insights(Elsevier B.V., 2019-01-08) Goodrich, Chanda G.; Prakash, Anjal; Udas, Pranita B.Climate change vulnerabilities are manifestations of intersecting contextual conditions and socioeconomic drivers of change. This introduction outlines major issues and gaps with regard to gendered vulnerability in Hindu-Kush Himalayan regions, along with key research and findings. This thematic issue of Environmental Development journal brings together studies on aspects of intersectionality and climate change vulnerability. Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) is where 10 river systems originate through the highest peaks of the world in a mountain system spread over eight countries. The especially high elevation biota includes forest, agro-biodiversity, range and pasture ecosystems. HKH is a major hotspot for climate change. ItemUnderstanding rural outmigration and agricultural land use change in the Gandaki Basin, Nepal(Elsevier Ltd., 2020-08-20) Maharjan, Amina; Kochhar, Ishaan; Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Hussain, Abid; Gioli, GiovannaThis study investigates agricultural land use change in Chitwan, Nuwakot and Lamjung districts of Nepal (1990-2017) in relation to rural outmigration, which has steadily increased. A remittance economy has fuelled urbanization processes as well as transformations in the rural economy. Results of the study show that agricultural land abandonment is higher in mountain areas than in the plains (Terai). When men out-migrate women continue to farm, leading to the feminization of agriculture. But when significant numbers of women out-migrate, farms are abandoned as older people are often unable to do the work. Increased commercialization and competitiveness of agriculture may reduce land abandonment. ItemLinking IPCC AR4 & AR5 frameworks for assessing vulnerability and risk to climate change in the Indian Bengal Delta(Elsevier Ltd., 2020-06-06) Das, Shouvik; Ghosh, Amit; Hazra, Sugata; Ghosh, Tuhin; de Campos, Ricardo Safra; Samanta, SouravThe International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 (Fifth Assessment Report, 2014) conceptual approach and terminology is aligned with a concept of risk which differs from the previous framework (AR4). This study draws links between the AR5 concept of risk with the previous concept of vulnerability (AR4). The most significant difference between the results of the AR4 and AR5 approaches is the change in sub-district level relative rankings. Findings show that Basanti, in the Bengal Delta, is the most vulnerable sub-district using the AR4 approach, whereas Gosaba is found to be highly exposed to risk using the AR5 approach. ItemCost effective adaptation to flood : sanitation interventions in the Gandak river basin, India(Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-11-09) Dasgupta, Purnamita; Sahay, Samraj; Prakash, Anjal; Lutz, ArthurGiven the acute deficits in sanitation in the region, the study looks at technology options that demonstrate how climate risk management can be integrated with development targets for poor and marginalized households. The cost-effectiveness of technology options is altered substantially when the costs of current and future flood events are incorporated into the equation. The study reveals that engineering or construction cost-based norms can under-estimate the benefits of integrating climate risks into infrastructure design, and the importance of capturing non-marketed benefits in such assessments. Findings indicate that policy interventions need to be sensitive to interaction effects between technology and climate change. ItemLocal participation in decentralized water governance : insights from north-central Namibia(Springer, 2020-08-20) Hegga, Salma; Kunamwene, Irene; Ziervogel, GinaThe study analysis reveals that decentralized governance of water resources can be ineffective if governments do not allocate sufficient resources to support and enable local governance systems. In southern Africa, community-based management of natural resources has expanded in line with governments’ stated intentions of increasing local participation and ownership. Their capacities to contribute meaningfully to decentralized water management, as well as the presence of enabling institutional arrangements and financial resources, are limited. Achieving greater equity and efficiency in the water sector while reducing climate risk will require that local actors receive more support in return for fuller and more effective participation.