ItemFinal technical report / Managing Adaption to Coastal Environmental Change (C-CHANGE) : Canada and the Caribbean project(Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES) University of the West Indies, St Augustine, TT, 2015-04) Watson, PatrickMore than fifty percent of human populations live within sixty miles of coastlines. As such the creation and maintenance of mitigation and adaptation strategies for threats to coastal communities (such as sea-level rise, salinization and storm surges) are increasingly necessary. The principal objectives of C-CHANGE were: establishing community-university alliances through sharing global research while evaluating strategies for adaptation in the local context; profiling of local community vulnerabilities and risks; building local capacity for managing adaptation strategies; and developing interdisciplinary curricula for university programs and local community schools towards raising awareness and training. ItemIn a Caribbean small island developing state(Hydro International, 2011-12) Sutherland, MichaelSpatial models determined that even a 0.4 metre rise in local mean sea level could destroy turtle nesting sites. Grande Riviere in Trinidad and Tobago is an important nesting site for leatherback turtles, and eco-tourism an important contributor to Grande Riviere livelihoods. Any significant rise in mean sea level negatively impacting the turtles’ nesting sites will also link negatively to Grande Riviere’s socio-economic wellbeing. The beach is less than a mile long, but during peak nesting seasons more than 5000 turtles will arrive. Data used to construct the models were obtained under conditions existing in many Small Island Developing States (SIDS). ItemSea-level projections for five pilot communities of the Nunavut climate change partnership(Natural Resources Canada, 2011) James, T.S.; Simon, K.M.; Forbes, D.L.; Dyke, A.S.; Mate, D.J.Estimates of the range of sea-level change expected in the next 90 years (2010 to 2100) for five communities in Nunavut are derived from an assessment of published estimates of projected global sea-level change and an evaluation of vertical land motion. The projections provided here are intended to contribute to discussions on the possible impacts of projected sea-level change and potential mitigation measures that could be implemented at each community. Some of the community sea-level projections are notable for significant sea-level fall. This is a consequence of land uplift, which is occurring due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). ItemUntitled(2011-03) Tienaah, Titus; Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New BrunswickThis research develops an online Coastal Collaborative GIS (CCGIS) using local knowledge inputs to supplement existing data, towards creating a low cost, user-friendly risk mapping system that can be used in any community. Vulnerable communities’ topographic and sea level data, ranging from high to low precision, can contribute to data inputs helping to quantify the extent of coastal threats. The International Community-University Research Alliance Program (ICURA) C-Change is a collaboration of universities and eight communities in Canada and the Caribbean to develop adaptation strategies for the effects of sea level rise and storm surges. ItemSystem dynamics and GIS in the simulation of environmental change to coastal communities(University of Ottawa, 2010) Pakdel, SaharClimate change and sea level rise affects Canada’s most sensitive coastlines. This research proposal studies the community of Isle Madame in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The research focuses on identifying vulnerable areas in the community via geographical modeling using ArcGIS as well as simulating and modeling of coastal climate change via system dynamics. The objective of the research is to evaluate the physical, social, and economic impacts of a series of changing climate scenarios in order to plan for developing and implementing strategies to adapt to environmental change. The main challenges of this research are how to integrate and synthesize information from a variety of sources including biology, ecology, toxicology, habitat, natural resources, and environmental, as well as from human society including the study of, economic, social, cultural, and institutional and organizational dimensions. This includes industrial commercialization, community development, social stability, and federal and provincial government regulations and policy, that are all part of the human-environment integrated system. Determining the most vulnerable areas and improving local community knowledge, planning and community response networks are recognized as ways and means to reduce the negative impacts of pending climate change. This research outlines a dynamic model of coastal climate change for Isle Madame, designed to help the community be familiar with the community’s vulnerable areas in order to plan and implement a strategy to adapt to environmental change. ItemMulticriteria decision evaluation of adaptation strategies for vulnerable coastal communities(University of Ottawa, 2011-07) Mostofi Camare, HoomanAccording to the IPCC (2007) fourth assessment report, small islands and coastal communities have a set of characteristics that makes them very vulnerable to climate change impacts, mainly sea-level rise and storm surges. Coastal hazards including inundation, salinisation of the water supply, and erosion threaten vital infrastructure that support coastal communities. Although Canada has the longest coastline in the world, little work has been done on impacts of climate change and adaptation to these impacts in the Canadian coastal zones. This research is part of an International Community-University Research Alliance (ICURA) C-Change, project to develop a multicriteria decision evaluation and support for the systems analysis of adaptation options for coastal communities toward adapting to environmental changes. This study estimates the vulnerability of coastal communities with respect to their environmental, economic, social, and cultural dimensions. It also applies a group version of the Analytical Hierarchy Process for identifying decisions that various stakeholders make on suggested adaptation strategies. This study develops a methodological framework that is applicable to various coastal and small island contexts. The application of the proposed framework is further discussed in a case study conducted on the communities of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (PEI), and Little Anse on Isle Madame, Nova Scotia. Specifically, the state of the Little Anse breakwater is analyzed and new adaptation options are presented and evaluated. This research has illustrated and applied a process of decision evaluation and support that explicitly engages multiple participants and critieria in complex problems situations involving environmental change in coastal communities. ItemGeographic information systems and system dynamics - modelling the impacts of storm damage on coastal communities(University of Ottawa, 2011) Hartt, Maxwell D.A spatial-temporal model is developed for modeling the impacts of simulated coastal zone storm surge and flooding, using a combined spatial mapping and system dynamics approach. By coupling geographic information systems (GIS) and system dynamics, the interconnecting components of the model are used with limited historical data, to evaluate storm damage. For the purpose of illustrating this model, the research is applied specifically to the case of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, a vulnerable coastal city subject to considerable impacts from pending sea level rise and more frequent severe storm surge attributed to the changing climate in the coastal zone. ItemDeveloping a predictive GIS model of sea level rise for a selected coastal community(2010-04) Seeram, Amit; Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West IndiesThis project increases the preparedness of the community of Grande Riviere, Trinidad, by developing a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) model, to illustrate potential flooding areas associated with sea level rise. Grande Riviere is a coastal community best known for the annual nesting of the leather back turtle, which attracts tourists from all over the world. Various predictions of sea level rise were applied to the model; the results are a series of maps demonstrating areas associated with predictions within the Grande Riviere community, including the potential area of land intruded, number of buildings, and length of roads affected. ItemAdapting to flooding in Georgetown : an investigation of climate change, sea level rise, state policy and community practices(Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West Indies, 2010) Leung, Kira Lise; Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West IndiesClimate change is being accompanied by rising sea levels and shifts in precipitation patterns worldwide. This phenomenon is increasing the frequency and severity of flooding events in Georgetown, which is already vulnerable due to its low elevation and history of land reclamation. Moreover, adaptive capacity is low due to limited financial resources and poor governance. The realization of a suitable adaptation plan for Georgetown through a more geographically-specific understanding of vulnerability and adaptation options is therefore critical. Using case study wards differing by income level, land tenure, sewerage system, and garbage disposal method, the project examined how various wards were responding to the threat of flooding with the resources available to them. Sample wards were then used as an indication of how wards with similar characteristics are adapting. As flooding is imposed upon a largely pre-existent urban structure, all social classes and urban environments were found to be potentially vulnerable to the impacts of flood events. Nevertheless, household experiences of flooding and its impacts were shown to be influenced by household asset profiles (income), which were in turn, linked to location (i.e. urban or semi-urban) and dwelling construction style. Results suggest state intervention via enforcement of relevant building codes, drainage infrastructure maintenance, and secure housing programs, is likely to reduce Georgetown’s vulnerability to the threat of flooding. Increased public awareness and disaster preparedness also stands to boost adaptive capacity. ItemAssessment and validation of the sea level rise threat to Grande Riviere, Trinidad(Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West Indies, 2011-04) Hosein, Farah A.; Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West IndiesGrande Riviere is a coastal community that lies at that backshore of the Grande Riviere beach on the Northern coastline of Trinidad. This beach is famous for the sight-seeing of leatherback turtles that visit every year to nest on the beach. It is a very important tourist attraction and as a result has built a thriving economy for the community of Grande Riviere. Of recent, Sea Level Rise (SLR) as a result of climate change has been the topic of investigative reports especially along the coastlines of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). This report entails a study done on the coastline of Grande Riviere in order to assess the impact of SLR on the beach and consequently the nesting of leatherback turtles on the beach. Both primary and secondary data was collected in terms of beach profiles from previous years and a beach profile was done for the current year. Datasets were also collected. All data were processed and Arc Map and Arc Scene were used to illustrate the data in a form of a map. A polygon was digitized for each map using an elevation of 0.4m which would fall into the IPCC’s category 1 of their sea level rise scenarios. The polygons that were digitized were used to analyze the area of the beach that would be impacted by the 0.4m rise in sea level. In addition, line graphs were also created and analyzed in order to get an assessment of the profile of the beach over time. Once the results were analyzed and compared, a conclusion in terms of the impact of sea level rise of 0.4m on the beach was drawn. The area found common to all polygons that will definitely be impacted upon by a 0.4m rise in sea level was found to be 1119.7m2 and a conclusion was also drawn that this rise in sea level will impact the shoreline by accretion and erosion. It was found that the ideal habitat for the nesting of the leatherback turtles may be damaged after some time as the form of the beach is likely to change. As a result, the turtles may find an alternative nesting area which would consequently devastate the thriving economy of the community of Grande Riviere. ItemAssessing the socioeconomic impact of sea level rise on coastal communities(Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West Indies, 2010) Grant, Sade; Department of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, University of the West IndiesThis study assesses the expected impacts of sea level rise on one of the coastal communities of Trinidad, Grande Riviere. As one of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS), Trinidad is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and sea level rise. Tourism operations, which are the centre of many of the economic activities in the community, may be affected most by the projected sea level rise. Findings support the need to develop adaptation strategies to minimize impacts of sea level rise on coastal resources of the area in terms of social disruption, economic costs and environmental impacts. ItemLinking vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation in small island developing states : climate change and the community of Grande Riviere, Trinidad(2011) Ganase, Sherry Ann; Teelucksingh, Sonja S.Double inequity prevails in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), where countries that least benefited from greenhouse gas (GHG) unfairly experience the bulk of the effects from climate change, as opposed to those that benefited fully from GHG (developed countries). Simulations utilizing a Vulnerability Index factor led to a series of adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change at governmental, community and household levels. Results underscore the need for communities of small island states such as Grande Riviere to adopt appropriate measures to deal with climate change impacts, such as induced sea level rise, collectively and effectively.