Water Governance and Management / Gouvernance et gestion de l’eau

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    Addressing water stress through wastewater reuse : complexities and challenges in Bangalore, India
    (ICLEI, 2014) Jamwal, P.; Thomas, B.K.; Lele, S.; Srinivasan, V.
    The paper argues that upstream waste water re-use (WWRU) may not be as straightforward as city planners assume. Potential impacts downstream and the techno-institutional context need to be addressed with WWRU as one strategy to reduce water stress. Three challenges with WWRU are discussed using data from the study of wastewater treatment, an analysis of ongoing debates regarding the scale of treatment, and an ongoing study of the downstream uses and impacts of polluted water. Bangalore’s wastewater enters the Vrishabhavathy and the Pinakini river basins in almost equal quantities. This study focuses on the Vrishabhavathy River.
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    Beyond city limits : using a basin perspective to assess urban adaptation to climate change; the case of the city of Santiago in Chile
    (ICLEI, 2014) Vicuña, S.; Bonelli, S.; Bustos, E.; Uson, T.
    The main source of water supply for Santiago, Chile is the Maipo River, which is expected to have reduced water availability due to climate change. The paper presents a conceptual model to assess adaptation options available both within and beyond city limits by considering the river basin in which the city is located. When looking at a basin scale, there seems to be a broader set of adaptation options if a city lies closer to the basin outlet than if located nearer the headwaters. Also noteworthy is that Chile´s water system grants private ownership of water.
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    Climate adaptation and resilience in coastal zones : a review of coastal research; synthesis document
    (Overseas Development Institute, London, GB, 2014) Jobbins, Guy; Doczi, Julian; Wilkinson, Emily
    The 13 projects reviewed in this document worked at a variety of scales; some focus on single communities, and 7 work at the scale of cities or subnational regions such as the Nile Delta. Projects working at large scale are particularly noteworthy because of the landscape dimensions frequently involved in coastal adaptation issues such as flood and sea level rise protection. This report presents a summary of the evaluation report, focused on two thematic clusters: the first relates research findings on disaster risk reduction and socioecological resilience; the second focuses on findings from research on adaptation to slow-onset climate change.
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    Accès à l'eau pour usage domestique dans les quartiers informels de Ouagadougou : variations saisonnières et réponses adaptatives
    (2013-12) Soura, Abdramane; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Ouedraogo, François De Charles; Sanou, Bakary; Yaka, Pascal; Lankoande, Bruno; Millogo, Roch
    La plupart des travaux scientifiques sur l'accès à l'eau dans la région du Sahel se concentrent sur les zones rurales. Les villes, en revanche, sont largement considérées comme ayant un accès suffisant à l'eau. Cette conception cache des disparités en ce qui concerne l’accessibilité à l’eau dans les zones urbaines. En effet, avec la croissance démographique, de nombreux quartiers informels ont vu le jour dans plusieurs villes du Sahel. Ils n'ont en général accès ni à l'eau courante ni aux services d'assainissement. À partir de données recueillies dans des quartiers informels à Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso, cet article tente de répondre à des questions sur les conditions d'accès à l'eau pour usage domestique, comment ces conditions changent selon les saisons et comment les habitants s’adaptent à ces changements. L’article constate que les robinets publics, les forages et les vendeurs d'eau ambulants sont les principales sources d'approvisionnement en eau pour les ménages de ces quartiers. L’utilisation de l’eau de pluie est également une pratique répandue pendant la saison des pluies. Ces différents modes d’approvisionnement en eau varient selon les caractéristiques du ménage. La capacité de la population à s'adapter à la variabilité saisonnière est mise en évidence par la diversité et les changements dans le choix des sources d'eau. Ce choix implique la variabilité de la distance et du prix payé pour l'eau. Dans une certaine mesure, au cours de certaines périodes de l'année, en raison d'un manque d'options, les habitants sont obligés de payer un prix élevé, de parcourir de longues distances et / ou de limiter la quantité d'eau à usage domestique.
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    MAPA - Maipo : plan de adaptación; newsletter, no. 2, noviembre 2013
    (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2013-11) Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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    Modelling the hydrological balance of the Okpara catchment at the Kaboua outlet in Benin
    (International Academic Journals, 2013-03) Sintondji, Luc O.; Dossou-Yovo, Elliott R.; Agbossou, Kossi
    Rapid population growth and industrial development create problems with water management that can lead to contamination and scarcity of water resources. The primary aim of the modeling in this study was to assess annual renewal rates of water resources and erosion rates in the Okpara catchment at the Kaboua outlet. The SWAT 2003 model was selected as the most appropriate for the purpose of this study; it was calibrated and validated for the study basin. Digital elevation model, daily climatic data for 1968-2007, soil and land use maps, physical characteristics of soil, physical parameters of crops were all incorporated in the model that divided the whole catchment in to sub-basins and Hydrological Responses Units (HRU). Calibration and validation of data demonstrated that precipitation in the watershed was 1,075.8 mm/a. Surface runoff was 106.6 mm/a (10% of precipitation), and the total recharge of aquifers was 225.4 mm/a (21% of precipitation). The actual rate of evapotranspiration was 759.8 mm/year (71% of precipitation). The total volume annually produced in the catchment was about 4 billions m3; this amounted to more than 500 times the needs of the population, but paradoxically it still suffered from severe water scarcity. Regarding erosion, an average value of 7t/ha/year was obtained for the watershed with a maximum value for cropland (16.85t/ha/a) and the minimum value for bushed savannah (0.64t/ha/a). Moreover, agricultural practices most susceptible to reduce soil loss were those ridges perpendicular to a slope. Based on these results, some suggestions were made for more sustainable use of land and water resources in the catchment.
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    Analysing the cost of adapting to climate change
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 2012-05) Fisher, Suzanne
    How do you estimate the cost of adaptation to climate change on vulnerable communities, where stakeholders are involved in identifying costs and benefits? Project benefits – and the importance of those benefits – are different depending on which stakeholders you ask. ‘Stakeholders’ is NGO jargon for all the groups impacted by the climate change adaptation projects being studied, such as the national or local government, the local community (including local farmers), and the private sector. A workshop looks at approaches to cost benefit analysis, where classic analysis doesn’t account for non-monetary benefits.
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    Stakeholder-focused cost-benefit analysis in the water sector : guidance report
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2013-01) Chambwera, Muyeye; Baulcomb, Corinne; Lunduka, Rodney; de Bresser, Laura; Chaudhury, Abrar
    These guidelines are intended to show how economic tools can be used for a stakeholder-focused approach to planning and evaluating adaptation to climate change. Using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as an overall framework, this guidance document presents the basic steps of an approach that enriches traditional economic analysis by focusing on stakeholders in the water sector. The case studies, all located in areas facing the impact of climate change in the water sector, used stakeholder approaches to undertake economic analyses of adapting to climate change. Outcomes will be determined by specific needs, which will vary from one setting to another.
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    Stakeholder-focused cost-benefit analysis in the water sector : synthesis report
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2013-01) Lunduka, Rodney; Bezabih, Mintewab; Chaudhury, Abrar
    Five case studies from representative low- and middle-income countries (Bolivia, Morocco, Malawi, Bangladesh, and Nepal) were selected to pilot the approach of stakeholder identification and prioritization of adaptation strategies. All studies generated evidence on cost benefits of adaptation. Non-monetary benefits are highly significant, particularly for local households and the environment. For instance, more than 50 per cent of water saved by switching to drip irrigation in Morocco will increase long-term groundwater levels; while incorporating soil and water conservation technologies into irrigation in Malawi benefits fisheries and birds, less siltation in the lake and better long-term yields reduce the need to hunt birds.
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    Liens entre l'eau et l'énergie au regard des changements climatiques dans les pays en développement : les expériences vécues en Amérique latine, en Afrique de l'Est et en Afrique australe
    (IDRC, Ottawa, CA, 2012) Platonova, Inna; Leone, Michele
    "Les questions interdépendantes que sont l’accès aux ressources hydriques et l’accès aux ressources énergétiques sont essentielles au renforcement de la capacité d’adaptation aux changements climatiques. En dépit de travaux de recherche de plus en plus nombreux sur la relation entre les changements climatiques et les ressources hydriques, d’une part, et sur le rapport entre la disponibilité de l’eau et l’énergie renouvelable au service du développement, d’autre part, peu d’efforts ont été consentis pour replacer la recherche sur les changements climatiques, l’eau et l’énergie réalisée à l’échelon local dans le contexte des pays en développement. En 2010, le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) a donné le coup d’envoi au projet Eau et énergie propres – évaluation des services relatifs à l’adaptation aux changements climatiques ayant pour objectif d’évaluer les facteurs qui favorisent et entravent l’utilisation des technologies d’énergies renouvelables décentralisées pour les services d’approvisionnement en eau afin d’aider les collectivités à mieux s’adapter à la variabilité du climat et aux changements et de soutenir l’accès équitable à ces services et leur pérennité dans un contexte de plus en plus incertain. Quatre équipes de recherche prennent part à ce projet, soit : Fundacion Bariloche, (Argentine); Clean Energy Incubator de l’Université du Texas à Austin (États-Unis); Energy Research Centre de l’Université du Cap (Afrique du Sud); Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD) (Kenya). Au terme de leurs travaux, ces équipes ont rédigé des rapports d’examen approfondi portant sur l’Amérique latine, l’Afrique australe et l’Afrique de l’Est..."
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    Nexo energía-agua en el contexto del cambio climático en los países en desarrollo: Experiencias de América Latina, África Oriental y Austral
    (IDRC, Ottawa, CA, 2012) Leone, Michele
    "El acceso a los recursos energéticos y el acceso a los recursos hídricos están interconectados y ambos temas son cruciales para el fortalecimiento de la capacidad de adaptación al cambio climático. A pesar de la creciente investigación sobre la relación entre cambio climático y recursos hídricos por un lado, y la relación entre disponibilidad de agua y energía renovable para el desarrollo, por otro lado, no se ha hecho lo suficiente para integrar la investigación en cambio climático, agua y energía a nivel local en el contexto de los países en desarrollo. El Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo lanzó un proyecto en el 2010, “Energía y Agua Limpias: Una Evaluación de Servicios para la Adaptación Local al Cambio Climático”, con el fin de determinar los factores que propiciaban o impedían el uso de tecnologías descentralizadas de energía renovable en el suministro de agua para ayudar a que las comunidades se adaptaran mejor a la variabilidad y cambio climáticos y para facilitar un acceso equitativo a estos servicios y a la vez garantizar su solidez, dada la situación de creciente incertidumbre. Cuatro equipos de investigación se involucraron en este proyecto: la Fundación Bariloche (Argentina), la Clean Energy Incubator de la Universidad de Texas en Austin (Estados Unidos), el Energy Research Centre de la Universidad de Ciudad del Cabo (Sudáfrica), la Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD) (Kenia), que produjo informes de evaluación en profundidad tanto en América Latina como en África Austral y África Oriental..."
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    Economics of climate change in the water sector in Nepal : a stakeholder-focused approach; a case study of the Rupa Watershed, Kaski, Nepal
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2012-03) Dhakal, Arjun; Dixit, Ajaya
    Nepal’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) shows the watershed area is vulnerable to climate change, with landslides a particular concern. The region in general has experienced increased temperatures and erratic and intense rainfall. The main objective of the study was to explore the options for managing Rupa Lake even under the extreme conditions of climate change, through implementing adaptation measures as chosen by local stakeholders. Two options were presented for cost-benefit analyses: construction of gabion check dams in the river, and construction of an earth-fill dam in the lake. The Rupa Watershed is typical of mountain ecosystems.
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    Better economics : supporting climate change adaptation with stakeholder analysis; a case study of Morocco
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2012-03) Mohamed, Boughlala
    The study addresses the economics of adapting to climate change in the irrigation water sector in Morocco, using a cost benefit analysis (CBA)-focused, multi-stakeholder approach to climate change adaptation. All stakeholders agreed that conversion to drip irrigation system is the only solution to the water deficit, which is partly caused by observed climate changes. The majority of farmers were not aware of the non-monetary benefits of drip irrigation revealed by the study. The Regional Office of Agricultural Development in Tadla (ORMVAT) confirmed that the results of the project will help to convince farmers who have not yet signed up to this project.
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    Multiple stakeholders’ economic analysis of climate change adaptation : a case study of Lake Chilwa Catchment, Malawi
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2012-03)
    The multi-stakeholder analysis for Lake Chilwa catchment basin evaluated the economics of climate change adaptation. Soil and water conservation technologies in irrigation and in rain-fed agriculture will increase benefits for all stakeholders. As well, it will improve the efficiency of adaptation strategies being implemented in other resource sectors – including closed seasons for fishing and bird hunting – and help ensure sustainability. These mechanisms would also yield an estimated additional US$ 8,473,433 per year in food crops while eliminating losses to fisheries and bird resources. Effective planning and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies requires thorough communication with all stakeholders.
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    Multi-stakeholder cost-benefit analysis of climate change adaptation measures and options : the case of urban water provision in the context of melting glaciers in Bolivia
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2012-03) Gonzales Iwanciw, Javier; Zalles, Heidi; Cabrera, Yesmy
    Despite high levels of uncertainty and complexity, glacier melting is already taking place. The potential impact on water provision for the cities of La Paz and El Alto are well understood. The two options assessed in this study, using the multi-stakeholder cost-benefit analysis (MCBA) methodology are: the construction of a new dam; and efficiency measures in the La Paz / El Alto water delivery system. Findings show that both have a positive net present value (NPV) in financial, social and environmental terms. A major constraint on the water sector in Bolivia is lack of agreement on a new Water Law.
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    Reducing adaptation costs to climate change through stakeholder-focused project design : the case of Khulna city in Bangladesh
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, GB, 2012-03) Haque, A.K. Enamul
    In the case of the Khulna city drainage system adaptation project, the project used a combination of complex models in order to derive a set of strategies for adaptation to climate risks. The study develops a stakeholder-focused cost-benefit analysis for Khulna City in terms of flooding due to climate change. Adaptation and mitigation projects must take into account stakeholders’ perceptions in order to reduce costs, as many climate events are in the distant future, making it likely that stakeholders will take autonomous adaptation measures. In order to develop a better understanding, the model used two IPCC global climate scenarios.
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    Using multicriteria evaluation and GIS for flood risk analysis in informal settlements of Cape Town : the case of Graveyard Pond
    (2012) Musungu, Kevin; Motala, Siddique; Smit, Julian
    This research investigates a methodology that the Cape Town City Council (CTCC) can use to improve flood risk assessments. Previous studies show that pairwise comparison method (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for more accurate risk assessment. Risk weights were subsequently calculated using pairwise comparisons for each settlement household based on questionnaire responses. The risk weights were then mapped into the GIS to show spatial disparities in flood risk. The various maps showed that vulnerability and risk are not homogeneous across Graveyard Pond settlement, and as well could pinpoint dynamics that amplify risk.
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    Adaptive water management : looking to the future; final technical report re Research Awards for Young Researchers
    (FGV DIREITO RIO, Rio de Janeiro, BR, 2011) Silveira da Rocha Sampaio, Rômulo; Monjardim Barbosa, Mariana; Iglesias Peralta, Alicia
    The World Water Congress (of the International Water Resources Association) was a strategic opportunity to highlight the research results from relevant projects in the field authored by young researchers. The Research Awards for Young Scholars (RAYS) sought innovative work that explores emerging drivers of water resources management, including climate change. This report documents the activities of RAYS, as well as outputs and outcomes of the program, which supported scholars from the Latin America and Caribbean region.
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    Clean energy and water : an assessment for services for adaptation to climate change; final assessment report
    (AFREPREN/FWD, Nairobi, KE, 2012) Energy Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD)
    The report assesses challenges facing the wider uses of renewable energy technologies in water services. Promotion of pro-poor renewable-based water pumping options in East Africa such as treadle pumps, wind pumps and ram pumps (examined in this report), will demand collaboration between the ministries in charge of energy with those in charge of water and agriculture. Even though appropriate technologies exist, the study’s findings indicate that there are no clear-cut policies to support the dissemination of renewable energy technologies for water services as an adaptation strategy to climate change. Most national policies and strategies focus of large-scale conventional power generation technologies.