Pathways to resilience: Services and support for youth / Le chemin de la résilience: Services et aide à la jeunesse

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    Youth resilience to violence in Africa
    (2021-11) Tadesse, Medhane; Koné, Rodrigue Fahiraman
    ‘Resilience’ takes shape at different levels and is determined by socialisation, norms and values. The less socialised the individual is, the less his or her ability to escape violence. Self-advancement is very much linked with self-regulation. Adaptation, decision making, and proactive action were the most influential internal factors, while peer influences and family are the most important external factors. Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations (such as educational institutions) have critical roles. Study reports clearly illustrate the social-ecological factors of influence and why when given meaningful support most young people construct peaceful pathways for change.
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    Youth and countering violent extremism in Africa
    (2021-11) Tadesse, Medhane
    Research findings from the project suggest adopting a multi-level engagement, viewing and engaging youth as partners, recognising human-rights approaches, ensuring multi-stakeholder involvement, and focusing on “soft interventions” including citizen participation, working with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other non-state actors, investing in social cohesion, and reinforcing the need to nurture and empower young people. IDRC's pan-African initiative “Understanding and Addressing Youth Experiences with Violence, Exclusion and Injustice in Africa” supported 14 research projects in 12 African countries. This brief provides a window into some country study findings.
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    Urban youth violence in Africa
    (2021-11) Sy, Kalidou
    One of the methodological choices made in the conduct of this study was to focus on political corruption as a phenomenon that compromises young people's access to economic opportunities while also limiting government's ability to guarantee economic rights, including through the provision of social services. Cumulative or isolated factors can cause long-term exclusion of young people from economic, civic and political spaces. While violence is not necessarily urban, rapid urbanisation undeniably has an impact on people’s daily safety and is of particular importance for countries in the midst of urban transition. The issue of youth political participation is critical.
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    Gender, violence and violent extremism
    (2021-11) M'Cormack-Hale, Fredline
    The paper reports on a pan-African research initiative involving 14 research projects in 12 African countries, commissioned by the IDRC to better understand and address youth experiences with violence and violent extremism (VE) on the continent. The focus is on work that examines women's involvement in VE, although studies encompassing other forms of youth and violence are also addressed. Policies are needed that enable women to leave conditions of violence, coercion and violent extremism without undue punishment or burden, and which can facilitate their return back to their families without fear of rejection.
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    Safe homes for African LGBTQ+ youth : resilience personified
    (2021-11) Livermon, Xavier
    African Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth are disproportionately affected by the issue of homelessness. Social housing policy is often inadequate to address the needs of homeless youth in general and homeless LGBTQ youth more specifically. This policy brief highlights concerns regarding housing markets, which are limited to the extent that profit motives constrain housing choices for the poorest and least economically resourced. It examines LGBTQ community-led practices of safe home provision. Decriminalisation of LGBTQ communities is a first step in addressing inequities.
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    Role of customary institutions in building youth resilience to violence in Africa
    (2021-11) Koné, Rodrigue Fahiraman
    The research considers socio-community institutions and mechanisms on the factors of resilience of young people in the face of violence in Africa, where the silent majority of young people do not choose violence. This kind of resilience has been defined as "a dynamic process by which the individual demonstrates positive adaptation despite the experience of adverse conditions or significant trauma." The report synthesizes results of separate studies in Burkina Faso and Tanzania as, “the less socialised the individual, the less ability to escape violence.” Future research needs to deepen the reflection on the stability of African States from the perspective of community resilience (not only of violence).
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    Flood vulnerability and resilience in peri-urbanizing Vietnam : a case study from Ninh Binh province
    (Springer Nature, 2019) Le, Hue; Ha, Ly Bui
    Peri-urban areas in Vietnam are caught between development and conservation needs, between economic development and environmental protection, between cultural preservation and sustainable development. This chapter/article examines vulnerabilities and challenges from flooding in peri-urban communities of the city of Ninh Binh, focusing on: (a) local socioeconomic development policy and the establishment of the Khanh Phu Industrial Zone; (b) impacts caused by flooding and lack of regulations, unplanned built environments, and underdeveloped water infrastructure; and (c) the varying adaptations of different social groups of households. It also explores how institutional adaptation programmes together with household responses collectively determine the resilience of the system.
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    Understanding institutional challenges for urban planning in Vientiane capital, Lao PDR
    (2017-11) Hayward, Daniel
    This policy brief analyzes infrastructural development in Vientiane Capital, looking at components of roads and transport, water supply, wastewater, drainage, solid waste, food security and energy. Each system is considered in terms of its present state, socio-economic inclusivity, and environmental factors. The final chapter suggests how development practitioners might engage with Lao government stakeholders in the field of urban climate resilience, and offers recommendations. As urban development speeds forward regardless of any managed approach, there is a danger that urban planning is becoming reactive rather than proactive, constantly having to redress spatial zoning and regulatory frameworks.
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    Detailed outline of ICURA presentation
    (Small Globe Inc., 2015-10-27)
    This two-page document provides the subject headings and topics for presentation by the IDRC at the International Community-University Research Alliance Program (ICURA) conference (2015). See also "Summative evaluation : ICURA; a review of the International Community-University Research Alliance"
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    Engaging youth for resilient and inclusive societies - recommendations and summary report
    (2019-04-04) IDRC
    Youth engagement in Canada targets three main priorities: participation; protection; and prevention. Canada is working to create meaningful and equitable avenues for youth to engage in. The newsletter covers the conference in Ottawa, Canada (2019): “Public Seminar on Engaging Youth for Resilient and Inclusive Societies.” The seminar aimed to launch the UN Progress Study on Youth, Peace and Security (YPS), discuss its relevance, and explore how it can be applied to research, policy, and practice.
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    Protocole éthique et sécurité
    (2017-09) CERADD
    L’éthique doit guider le comportement de tous les individus qui participent à la planification, à la conduite et à la promotion de la recherche à laquelle se prêtent des êtres humains. Toutefois, les facteurs qui handicapent l’idéal de la rigueur scientifique reposant sur l’éthique sont multiples. D’abord, il existe des limites à ce qui peut être entrepris comme recherches avec des groupes humains. Ainsi, il n’est pas pensable de ne nuire d’aucune manière à des êtres humains, ni même les tromper. Ensuite, il y a le fait que l’être humain est sans doute l’objet le plus complexe de la nature, et donc celui dont l’étude est la plus difficile. En outre, il faut considérer le fait que les êtres humains ne sont pas transparents et qu’on ne peut étudier leurs pensées intimes, d’autant qu’ils attribuent souvent des significations à leurs actes différents de celles que les scientifiques peuvent proposer. L’ultime difficulté est que les chercheurs eux-mêmes sont humains, et ont par conséquent des intérêts et des partis pris liés à leur objet d’étude, ce qui fait qu’il est parfois difficile de garder la distance, la neutralité et l’objectivité nécessaires en bien des circonstances.
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    Pathways to resilience : formal service and informal support use patterns among youth in challenging social ecologies; final technical report
    (2015-02) Tian Guoxiu; Restrepo Henao, Alexandra; Theron, Linda; VanderPlaat, Madine
    Despite exposure to poverty, violence, mental illness, marginalization due to race, ethnicity, ability, divorce or death of their parents, cultural dislocation, and other risks, research shows that many at-risk youth still become active contributors to their families and as citizens in their communities. What would locally designed interventions look like that promote resilience (citizenship, prosociality, safety, etc.) for youth exposed to significant risk associated with their social and physical ecologies? As well as conducting research responding to this question, Pathways participants, researchers and students/interns were afforded 20 opportunities to learn and enhance their research-related skills.
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    What is resilience across cultures and contexts? : advances to the theory of positive development among individuals and families under stress
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2010) Ungar, Michael
    A convergence of epistemological innovations occurring in fields as diverse as sociology, ecology, and the cross-cultural study of psychology makes it difficult to assert what is and is not a benchmark of positive development under stress. Although these innovations complicate the study of resilience, understanding developmental outcomes of individuals and families as variable across cultures and contexts helps to broaden how we conceptualize protective processes. In this article, I use examples from family therapy and research to explore these areas of innovation. A definition of resilience based on these innovations explains how positive outcomes are the result of navigation to health resources and negotiation for resources to be provided in meaningful ways. Four implications for practice are discussed.
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    Using visual methods to capture embedded processes of resilience for youth across cultures and contexts
    (PubMed, 2012-02) Didkowsky, Nora; Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda
    Objectives: We review the value of using visual data in a dialogue with youth, to reflect, explore and find language to better understand processes of resilience. Methods: The argument is demonstrated with examples from the Negotiating Resilience Project (NRP): an international study of 16 youth which uses video recording a day in the life of youth participants, photographs produced by youth, and reflective interviews with the youth about their visual data. Results: Three examples from the NRP are used to show the ways that visual methods can capture and elucidate previously hidden aspects of youth’s positive psychosocial development in stressful social ecologies. Conclusion: Incorporating images as research data can aid in understanding previously unarticulated constructions of youth resilience. When the researcher is reflexive about power dynamics and their role in co-constructing the research environment, visual methods have the potential to reduce power imbalances in the field, meaningfully engage youth in the research process, and help to overcome language barriers.
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    Social ecology of resilience : addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2011) Ungar, Michael
    More than two decades after E. E. Werner and R. S. Smith (1982), N. Garmezy (1983), and M. Rutter (1987) published their research on protective mechanisms and processes that are most likely to foster resilience, ambiguity continues regarding how to define and operationalize positive development under adversity. This article argues that, because resilience occurs even when risk factors are plentiful, greater emphasis needs to be placed on the role social and physical ecologies play in positive developmental outcomes when individuals encounter significant amounts of stress. Four principles are presented as the basis for an ecological interpretation of the resilience construct: decentrality, complexity, atypicality, and cultural relativity. These 4 principles, and the research upon which they are based, inform a definition of resilience that emphasizes the environmental antecedents of positive growth. This framework can guide future theory development, research, and the design of interventions that promote well-being among populations who experience environments that inhibit resilience-promoting processes.
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    Families as navigators and negotiators : facilitating culturally and contextually specific expressions of resilience
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2010) Ungar, Michael
    A social ecological model of resilience is used to show that resilience is dependent on a family's ability to both access available resources that sustain individual and collective well-being, as well as participate effectively in the social discourse that defines which resources are culturally and contextually meaningful. In this paper both clinical evidence and a review of the research inform an integrated social ecological model of practice that is focused on advocating for the mental health resources necessary to nurture resilience, including the individual and family processes of coconstruction of meaning. Family therapists can help marginalized families living in challenging contexts develop skills as both navigators who access resources, as well as negotiators who are able to convince therapists and other service providers of what are culturally and contextually meaningful sources of support. A case study of an African-Canadian youth and his family will be presented. The implications of this approach to assessing therapeutic outcomes will also be discussed.
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    Ethical concerns regarding participation of marginalized youth in research
    (International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development (ISSBD), 2011) Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael
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    Community resilience for youth and families : facilitative physical and social capital in contexts of adversity
    (Elsevier, 2011) Ungar, Michael
    Studies that focus on community-level factors associated with the resilience of youth and families reflect a shift in perspective from community deficits to the potential of communities to facilitate the mobilization of human and physical resources. Physical and social capital (both informal relationships and formal service provision) give communities the potential to recover from dramatic change, sustain their adaptability, and support new growth. This paper reviews key concepts such as these as they relate to how young people access informal supports and formal services that promote resilience. A discussion of the relevant research highlights the way protective processes function when children, youth and families are exposed to catastrophic humanmade and natural events. Five principles are suggested to help promote community resilience. Implications for the design and implementation of interventions are discussed with a focus on making informal supports more available and formal services coordinated, continuous, co-located, negotiated, culturally relevant and effective.