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ItemAcademy-industry interactions at three different stages of the linking process : micro evidence from the perspective of both agents; Globelics Conference, Dakar, Senegal(Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México, MX, 2009)Findings of the study show that researcher’s value collaborative R&D, networking and consultancy in terms of knowledge compared with firms’ emphasis on human resources mobility. Academy-industry collaborations are categorized as successful even though these types of linkages are as yet uncommon in Mexico. Differences in the perception of benefits limit interactions and the possibility of initiating virtuous circles in the production and diffusion of knowledge. The Mexican case suggests the existence of two main types of collaboration drivers for firms: to increase firms´ technological capabilities and to complement them. These are largely basic/intermediate capabilities, with weak absorptive capacity of external knowledge. ItemAcademy-industry links in Brazil: evidence about channels and benefits for firms and researchers(Beech Tree Publishing, 2010)Knowledge flows between universities, public research institutes and firms may take various channels according to agents’ motivations and expected benefits. Models were estimated to investigate which channels of interaction lead to which benefits for firms, universities and research institutes in Brazil. Bi-directional channels are shown to be particularly relevant, yielding both innovative and productive benefits for the firms and intellectual and economic benefits for the universities. As for interactions between firms and research institutes, bi-directional channels are the most important in terms of intellectual benefits for the researchers and innovative benefits for the firms. These findings seem to confirm the dual role of the universities, versus a more focused one for the research institutes, and raise policy issues. Moreover, a negative correlation between investment in internal research and development and productive benefits for the firms was found, indicating that the expected benefits of public expenditure are not turning into innovation. ItemAcademy-industry modes of interaction and the influence of innovation policies : the case of Mexico (themes: Third Mission of Universities, National Innovation Systems, Triple Helice, 2009, Glasgow, Escocia)(Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México, MX, 2009)The aim was to better understand and compare the diverse modes of University - Industry interactions in the context of a developing country (México) by examining structural and policy related factors that might be underlying those interactions. The paper summarizes results of a survey which collected data on various modes of firms/academy interaction; 104 respondents were firms that have benefited from governmental incentives to innovation activities, and 280 that haven’t had access to those types of incentives. Incentives for performing innovation activities seem to have a significant impact in a firm’s innovation behavior. ItemAccess to Knowledge in Biotechnology: Can Patent Pooling Work in India?(2010)The concern for adequate access to patented knowledge is as old as the history of modern intellectual property rights (IPR). While it was always thought that the poor consumers may not be able to access knowledge, with the internationalization of IPR in particular due to the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), it was pointed out by many that developing countries would find it difficult to access patented knowledge (Maskus 2000; Giannakas 2001). The issue of access to patented knowledge created in the developed world by the developing countries came to limelight in 1998, when 39 big pharmaceutical companies sued the government of South Africa which was trying to deal with the problem of AIDS by importing drugs from companies which were not authorised licensee to produce these drugs as they were operating in countries that allowed such production. This created a major backlash as NGOs and activists launched a global movement as they thought that this move by the companies would undermine the efforts to combat the AIDS crisis (IEGBIIP 2008)... ItemAccess to Patented of Platform technologies in TB and Malaria - Issues and possible solutions in Indian Context(2010) Visalakshi, S; Santhosh, M RPatents are issued to protect inventions and innovations and to serve as incentive for more such activity and as consideration for disseminating the invention/innovation to the wider public. This is expected to lead to larger quantity of the product/service which the patent contains so that the availability would be more and wide spread. It would also encourage competition. Hence the main purpose of issue of patent is encouraging dissemination of knowledge and wider use. If it really happens in the field it is very good. But does it really happen? The situation in the field at times is to exclude than include more people as users of knowledge embedded in a patent. This can happen by broad patents, refusal to license the patent etc. This can lead to monopolies, high prices, slow or no progress on follow-on research, reduced number of new products in the market etc. Ultimately in the case of biomedical research it can lead to reduced access to health care products which are vital. In this area especially after the advent of biotechnology there is a unusual increase in patenting activity by the academia and industry which includes upstream patenting which is the main concern of this study. TB and malaria are diseases of importance to India and developing countries. There is still a high incidence of infections and resistance to drug and insecticides have led to new forms of TB like MDRs and XDRs and in the case of malaria, resurgence of the disease. There are efforts at global and Indian levels to stop TB and drugs/vaccines for Malaria etc. In India, research is on at the basic level to understand infectiveness of the pathogen and immunity of the populations to find clues to discover and design drugs, develop diagnostics, which can detect infections rapidly and come out with vaccines for the above diseases. ItemAccessing Patented Knowledge for Innovation - Technical Report(2010-08)As the world moves towards a knowledge-based economy, where wealth creation is no longer based on the capital investment, but rather on the brainpower and ability to create, Intellectual property (IP) has become an integral part of world business and a major source for wealth creation and economic growth (ARIPO, 2002). The current debate on the role of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and economic development generally as well as implications on research capabilities and capacities is linked to the fundamental changes that have taken place in international IPR system following the implementation of the Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement.... ItemActes de l'atelier national sur l'état des lieux de la situation des acteurs du système d'innovation des filières maïs, mil, mangue et karité au Burkina Faso, 24 au 27 juin 2009, Kombissiri(Secrétariat Permanent du Forum sur la Recherche Scientifique et les Innovations Technologiques (SP/FRSIT), BF, 2009) ItemActes du colloque / Produits naturels d'origine végétale(Univeristé du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, CA, 1989) Collin, G.C.; Garneau, F.X. ItemAddition of hydrocarbon and dispersat corexit 9527 into marine enclosed experimental ecosystem(Third Institute of Oceanography?, Xiamen, CN, 1986) Third Institute of Oceanography ItemAeromagnetic anomalies and tectonic trends across the Benue Trough and the adjacent Precambrian to Cambrian rocks in Nigeria(1985) Ajakaiye, D.E.; Hall, D.H.; Millar, T.W.; Verheijen, P.J.T.; Awad, M.B. ItemAeromagnetic anomalies and tectonic trends in and around the Benue Trough, Nigeria(1986) Ajakaiye, D.E.; Hall, M.B.; Millar, T.W.; Verheijen, P.J.T.; Awad, M.B. ItemAfrica's academies : robust scientific institutions won't be built in a day(MacMillan Publishers, Basingstoke, GB, 2007) ItemAfrican Institute for Mathematical Sciences next Einstein initiative (AIMS-NEI) : final technical report(2017-11-08) AIMS-NEI Global SecretariatThrough its support of African Institute for Mathematical Sciences next Einstein initiative (AIMS-NEI), the Government of Canada and IDRC, and the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) have demonstrated their leadership in investing in talented young Africans and building scientific and technical capacity across the continent through the development of a network of centres of excellence in mathematical sciences. This report provides details of the scope of the AIMS programme, along with evaluation of objectives, accomplishments and challenges. IDRC has provided flexibility in their support and oversight, allowing AIMS to take risks and demonstrate innovation. ItemAIMS IDRC/DFID : final technical report(2017-11)The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) is an innovative network of post-graduate centres for education, research and public engagement in mathematical sciences, providing advanced and broadly applicable mathematical skills to talented students from all over Africa. Founded in 2003 in Cape Town, South Africa, AIMS offers a one year Master’s in Mathematical Sciences that trains over 250 talented women and men from across the continent each year, preparing them for leadership positions in academia, government, civil society, private sector and entrepreneurship. Research is also an integral part of the AIMS mandate and ecosystem for transformation. Since its launch, AIMS has won global recognition as a centre of excellence for postgraduate education and research4. Building on its success, AIMS launched the Next Einstein Initiative (NEI) in 2008, to build a critical mass of scientific and technical talent in Africa, capable of driving progress across the continent. With a plan to expand to 15 centres in Africa by 2021, AIMS currently operates a global secretariat plus six centres of excellence: AIMS South Africa (2003); AIMS Senegal (2011); AIMS Ghana (2012); AIMS Cameroon (2013); AIMS Tanzania (2014); and AIMS Rwanda (2016). ItemAIMS-NEI network news, February 2014(AIMS-NEI, Cape Town, ZA, 2014-02) African Institute for Mathematical Sciences - Next Einstein Initiative (AIMS-NEI)The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) begins 2014 with the announcement of the African Union’s Agenda 2063, “Unity, Prosperity & Peace- a 50-year vision” which calls for action from all segments of African society to work together to build a prosperous and united Africa. Education in Mathematical Sciences is essential for its success. The 4th Centre of Excellence, AIMS-Cameroon, celebrates its inception with official opening celebrations in early 2014, welcoming international guests of honour. Reviews of other events, partnerships, innovations and fellowships are provided in the AIMS bulletin.