Research Results (Ecohealth) / Résultats de recherches (Écosanté)

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    Individual exposure level following indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure in Dakar (Senegal)
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-02-16) Ndong Ba, A.; Verdin, A.; Cazier, F.; Garcon, G.; Thomas, J.; Cabral, M.; Dewaele, D.; Genevray, P.; Garat, A.; Allorge, D.; Diouf, A.; Loguidice, J.M.; Courcot, D.; Fall, M.; Gualtieri, M.
    The study evaluated indoor and outdoor air pollution levels (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, PM10) at an urban site in Dakar city center and at a rural site. Individual exposure levels to selected pollutants and the variations in the levels of biomarkers of exposure were investigated in different groups of persons (bus drivers, traders working along the main roads and housemaids). Urinary S-PMA and t,t-MA levels were considered as biomarkers of environmental exposure to benzene for the enrolled subjects. This study clearly shows that interiors of buses circulating in Dakar determine high exposure to gases and particles compared to other environments investigated.
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    Pollution intérieure par les PM2,5 issues des combustibles utilisés pour la cuisson des repas et risques sanitaires dans la ville de Ouagadougou
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    Prevalence of asthma in children under 5 years old exposed to air pollution in Abidjan, (Côte D’ivoire)
    (2019-07-28) René, Kouao Ahua Kouassi; Kouadio, Kouame; Siele, Silue; Harvey, Attoh Toure; M’begnan, Coulibaly; Leandre, Konan; Veronique, Yoboue
    The study examined the relationship of pollutants resulting from biomass combustion and the risk of asthma in children under five years in Yopougon municipality. Household indoor air pollution associated with burning of biomass fuel for cooking and heating is responsible for 7 million deaths, within which are 543,000 deaths of children under 5 years old annually. In this study (as in many countries), children under 5 spend most of their time indoors. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used with indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5. Findings suggest that using butane gas will reduce air pollutants, along with risks of asthma related symptoms.
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    Exposure to PM2.5 related to road traffic : comparison between crossroads and outside of crossroads at Cotonou, Benin
    (Scientific Research Publishing Inc, 2019-11-12) Houngbégnon, Parfait; Ayivi-Vinz, Gloria; Lawin, Hervé; Houessionon, Karel; Tanimomon, Fadel
    Several studies have analysed the pollution issues owing to road traffic in Cotonou, Benin. Concentration levels of particles are higher in high traffic areas. This study was conducted along the 5 km high traffic road in the city of Cotonou. The journal article reviews the study methodology and findings. Results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model shows there are highly significant differences between concentrations of PM2.5 at crossroads, and as well, significant differences between concentrations of PM2.5 in the dry season compared to the rainy season. Exposure of human populations to air pollution is more intense on these crossroads.
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    Infection of porcine small intestinal enteroids with human and pig rotavirus A strains reveals contrasting roles for histo-blood group antigens and terminal sialic acids
    (PLOS Pathogens, 2021-01-29) Guo, Yusheng; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario Adriana; Saif, Linda Jean; Vlasova, Anastasia Nickolaevna
    Growing evidence suggests that host cellular glycans, such as histoblood group antigens (HBGAs) and sialic acids (SA), are recognized by the RV surface protein VP4. This detailed study established a porcine crypt-derived 3D intestinal enteroids (PIEs) culture system which contains all intestinal epithelial cells identified in vivo and represents a unique physiologically functional model to study RV-glycan interactions in vitro. Overall, results confirm that differential HBGAs-RV and SA-RV interactions determine replication efficacy of virulent group A RVs in PIEs. Consequently, targeting individual glycans for development of therapeutics may not yield uniform results for various RV strains.