Research Results (Ecohealth) / Résultats de recherches (Écosanté)

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    Individual exposure level following indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure in Dakar (Senegal)
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-02-16) Ndong Ba, A.; Verdin, A.; Cazier, F.; Garcon, G.; Thomas, J.; Cabral, M.; Dewaele, D.; Genevray, P.; Garat, A.; Allorge, D.; Diouf, A.; Loguidice, J.M.; Courcot, D.; Fall, M.; Gualtieri, M.
    The study evaluated indoor and outdoor air pollution levels (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, PM10) at an urban site in Dakar city center and at a rural site. Individual exposure levels to selected pollutants and the variations in the levels of biomarkers of exposure were investigated in different groups of persons (bus drivers, traders working along the main roads and housemaids). Urinary S-PMA and t,t-MA levels were considered as biomarkers of environmental exposure to benzene for the enrolled subjects. This study clearly shows that interiors of buses circulating in Dakar determine high exposure to gases and particles compared to other environments investigated.
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    Pollution intérieure par les PM2,5 issues des combustibles utilisés pour la cuisson des repas et risques sanitaires dans la ville de Ouagadougou
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    Prevalence of asthma in children under 5 years old exposed to air pollution in Abidjan, (Côte D’ivoire)
    (2019-07-28) René, Kouao Ahua Kouassi; Kouadio, Kouame; Siele, Silue; Harvey, Attoh Toure; M’begnan, Coulibaly; Leandre, Konan; Veronique, Yoboue
    The study examined the relationship of pollutants resulting from biomass combustion and the risk of asthma in children under five years in Yopougon municipality. Household indoor air pollution associated with burning of biomass fuel for cooking and heating is responsible for 7 million deaths, within which are 543,000 deaths of children under 5 years old annually. In this study (as in many countries), children under 5 spend most of their time indoors. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used with indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5. Findings suggest that using butane gas will reduce air pollutants, along with risks of asthma related symptoms.
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    Exposure to PM2.5 related to road traffic : comparison between crossroads and outside of crossroads at Cotonou, Benin
    (Scientific Research Publishing Inc, 2019-11-12) Houngbégnon, Parfait; Ayivi-Vinz, Gloria; Lawin, Hervé; Houessionon, Karel; Tanimomon, Fadel
    Several studies have analysed the pollution issues owing to road traffic in Cotonou, Benin. Concentration levels of particles are higher in high traffic areas. This study was conducted along the 5 km high traffic road in the city of Cotonou. The journal article reviews the study methodology and findings. Results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model shows there are highly significant differences between concentrations of PM2.5 at crossroads, and as well, significant differences between concentrations of PM2.5 in the dry season compared to the rainy season. Exposure of human populations to air pollution is more intense on these crossroads.
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    Infection of porcine small intestinal enteroids with human and pig rotavirus A strains reveals contrasting roles for histo-blood group antigens and terminal sialic acids
    (PLOS Pathogens, 2021-01-29) Guo, Yusheng; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario Adriana; Saif, Linda Jean; Vlasova, Anastasia Nickolaevna
    Growing evidence suggests that host cellular glycans, such as histoblood group antigens (HBGAs) and sialic acids (SA), are recognized by the RV surface protein VP4. This detailed study established a porcine crypt-derived 3D intestinal enteroids (PIEs) culture system which contains all intestinal epithelial cells identified in vivo and represents a unique physiologically functional model to study RV-glycan interactions in vitro. Overall, results confirm that differential HBGAs-RV and SA-RV interactions determine replication efficacy of virulent group A RVs in PIEs. Consequently, targeting individual glycans for development of therapeutics may not yield uniform results for various RV strains.
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    An ecoHealth approach : prediction and prevention of emerging infectious diseases from wildlife : final technical report
    (2015-03) EcoHealth Alliance
    Approximately 20% of novel emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and 50% of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases have been attributed to land-use change. It is a clear threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem services and a key driver of EIDs. The project investigates the mechanisms underlying disease emergence by assessing the impacts of land-use change, measured as forest fragmentation, on viral diversity and bat host assemblages. The University of São Paulo (USP) research team and New York-based EcoHealth Alliance have used active surveillance of bat and domestic animal populations to detect pathogens that cause emerging and established zoonotic diseases.
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    Protein mass spectrometry detects multiple bloodmeals for enhanced Chagas disease vector ecology
    (Elsevier, 2019-08-07) Keller, Judith I.; Lima-Cordón, Raquel; Monroy, M. Carlota; Schmoker, Anna M.; Zhang, Fan; Howard, Alan; Ballif, Bryan A.; Stevens, Lori
    Ecohealth-based approaches have been recognized as a sustainable method of Chagas disease control. Bloodmeal data and vector prevalence of various hosts fosters an understanding of local vector ecology and behavior. This detailed paper provides validation of the ability to detect multiple bloodmeals using synthetic hemoglobin reference peptides (SRPs) that differ among the previously reported most common bloodmeals. The study shows the superior ability of hemoglobin peptide-based LC-MS/MS to detect and identify Chagas disease vector bloodmeal sources (of field-collected Triatomine vectors from Guatemala), compared to classical DNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
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    Dispersion of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in central-southern Brazil : evidence from an integrative approach
    (PLOS, 2019-08-29) Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Aline; Antunes Baggio, Rafael; Antonio Boeger, Walter; González-Britez, Nilsa; Carbonera Guedes, Deborah; Céspedes Chaves, Enmanuel; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Guizani, Ikram
    Leishmania infantum is the zoonotic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological cycle in Brazil has dispersed from the Northeast to other regions of the country. Hypotheses regarding possible entries of Leishmania (L.) infantum into the area of the triple border are presented and discussed. The State of Parana´ borders the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso, which have experienced VL epidemics over the past 20 years. The study used genetic markers to understand the dispersion of Leishmania infantum throughout central-southern Brazil. Results show two possible agent inputs in the Parana´ state, one coming from Paraguay, the other from Santa Catarina state.
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    Fundamentals of research and action in food systems for the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCCD) : a scoping review
    (IDRC / Universidad del Valle, 2018) Mendez, Fabian; Suarez, Fabian; Alarcon, Selene
    This scoping review aims to characteerize the research and actions on food systems for the prevention of NCCD. Additionally, it aims to analyse coincidences, differences and possible synergies with Ecohealth principles. The purpose of this analysis is to contribute to the strengthening of research methodolodies and strategies for FS and to build a common mobilization and intervention agenda in this topic.
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    Fundamentos de la investigación y acción en sistemas alimentarios para la prevención de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT) : una revisión exploratoria
    (IDRC / Universidad del Valle, 2018) Mendez, Fabian; Suarez, Fabian; Alarcon, Selene
    Esta revisión exploratoria tiene como objetivo caracterizar la investigación y la acción en los sistemas alimentarios para la prevención de ECNT. Adicionalmente, pretende analizar las coincidencias, diferencias y posibles sinergias con los principios del enfoque de Ecosalud. A partir de este análisis se tiene el propósito de contribuir al fortalecimiento de las metodologías y estrategias de investigación y construir una agenda común de movilización e intervención para los sistemas alimentarios.
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    Implementation science : epidemiology and feeding profiles of the Chagas vector Triatoma Dimidiata prior to Ecohealth intervention for three locations in Central America
    (PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2018-11) Lima-Cordon, Raquel Asuncion; Stevens, Lori; Solorzano Ortiz, Elizabeth; Rodas, Gabriela Anaité; Castellanos, Salvador; Rodas, Antonieta; Abrego, Vianney; Zuniga Valeriano, Concepcion; Monroy, Maria Carlota
    Blood feeding insects from the subfamily Triatomine are involved in the transmission of Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, a neglected tropical disease endemic from southern Mexico through Central to northern South America. Chagas disease mostly affects rural areas and especially people living in houses made of lowcost, natural materials such as bajareque or adobe that have mud walls and a dirt floor. A multidisciplinary data-driven Ecohealth vector control program that includes house improvements (wall plastering and cement flooring), as well as insecticide spraying, was developed in Jutiapa department, Guatemala, and has been shown to decrease vectorhuman contact. Because Chagas vectors feed on a wide variety of vertebrates, knowing the local feeding profiles of the insect vectors before interventions can strengthen Ecohealth program development. To facilitate scaling up the Ecohealth program developed in Jutiapa to three new locations in three different countries, Texistepeque, El Salvador; San Marcos de la Sierra, Honduras and Olopa, Guatemala, and with distinct ecological scenarios, we assessed the entomological indices, feeding profiles and parasite infection of vectors collected in and around houses in the new locations prior to any interventions. Our results show all three metrics varied among locations. The results highlight the importance of domestic, synanthropic and sylvatic blood meal sources on the disease transmission cycle and the need to consider local conditions for vector control.
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    Enfoques ecosistémicos en salud y ambiente : aportes teórico-metodológicos de una comunidad de práctica
    (Ediciones Abya-Yala, Quito, EC, 2016-02) Betancourt, Óscar; Mertens, Frédéric; Parra, Manuel
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    Ecosystem research experience with two indigenous communities of Colombia : the ecohealth calendar as a participatory and innovative methodological tool
    (Springer, 2016) SantoDomingo, Andrés Felipe; Castro-Díaz, Laura; González-Uribe, Catalina
    Eco-bio-social factors may increase or decrease a community’s susceptibility to vector-borne disease transmission. Traditional studies have contributed information about the association between eco-bio-social factors and health outcomes, but few have provided this information in an integrative way characterizing annual dynamics among indigenous communities. Transdisciplinary research was conducted with the Bari of Karikachaboquira and the Wayu´u of Marbacella and El Horno, using qualitative and participatory methods, including seasonal graphics, semi-structured interviews, geo-referencing routes, and participatory observation. The information was triangulated and discussed with local actors in order to validate and complement the results. An ecohealth calendar was obtained for each community, linking the socioecological dynamics to specific diseases, especially malaria. Local dynamics can change, depending on environmental conditions, and these determine the presence or absence of diseases. For both communities, the rainy season is the period with the greatest proliferation of mosquitoes (including Anopheles spp.), during which malaria cases occur. The ecohealth calendar integrates eco-bio-social information from local communities, through participatory and potentially empowering processes, into a comprehensive layout. This can break down the conceptual, demographic, and cultural barriers in the context of community-based interventions and research to action based on an ecosystem framework.
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    Eco-epidemiología retrospectiva como herramienta aplicada a la vigilancia de la leishmaniasis en Misiones, Argentina, 1920-2014
    (PAHO, 2016) Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Santini, María Soledad; Liotta, Domingo Javier; Yadón, Zaida Estela
    Se presenta una metodología analítica retrospectiva, basada en el marco teórico de la eco-epidemiología, anclada en una escala espacial subnacional. Esta metodología, aplicada aquí a la caracterización de escenarios de transmisión de la leishmaniasis en la provincia argentina de Misiones —fronteriza con Brasil y Paraguay— permitió fundamentar recomendaciones de vigilancia y control apropiadas a dicha escala. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura sobre leishmaniasis en esa provincia y se determinaron tres escenarios de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea (LC) y visceral (LV), correspondientes a tres períodos: 1920-1997, en el que se constató la transmisión de LC, dispersa en el tiempo y el espacio; 1998-2005, en el que hubo brotes focales de LC; y 2006-2014 en el que, además, se registraron brotes y se documentó la dispersión geográfica de la LV. Para caracterizar los escenarios de riesgo y los procesos antrópicos que los producen, los resultados se sintetizaron e integraron en el contexto socio-histórico y bio-ecológico de cada período analizado. Se fundamentan recomendaciones de vigilancia y control en el territorio estudiado, entre ellas, establecer una vigilancia activa para monitorear posibles tendencias al incremento de la circulación parasitaria y vectorial y, ante la aparición de un foco, realizar estudios para verificar la transmisión autóctona y la intensidad del evento. Además, se debe establecer la obligación legal de tomar medidas adicionales de control por los responsables de los proyectos que impliquen modificación ambiental, como la realización de estudios de evaluación del riesgo de transmisión, y acciones de mitigación del riesgo, detección temprana y tratamiento oportuno de los casos
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    Role of gender in chagas disease prevention and control in Honduras : an analysis of communication and collaboration networks
    (Springer Link, 2016-07) Rocío Rodríguez Triana, Diana; Mertens, Frédéric; Valeriano Zúniga, Concepción; Mendoza, Yolanda; Yoshio Nakano, Eduardo; Monroy, Maria Carlota
    In Honduras, where Chagas disease is a serious health and environmental concern, prevention measures face the challenge of achieving widespread and long-term sustainable adoption by communities. The article integrates social network analysis and a gender-sensitive approach to understand the role of men and women in the implementation of a community-level intervention, based on the adoption of housing improvements to reduce the presence of the insect vector. A total of 108 people in the community of El Salitre were interviewed. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, participation in project activities, communication and collaboration networks related to Chagas disease prevention, knowledge of Chagas disease, and adoption of housing improvements techniques. Communication mostly occurred between the same gender individuals and was associated with knowledge of Chagas disease. Socioeconomic status, Chagas disease knowledge, and collaboration with men were associated with women adopting housing improvements. For men, however, participation in project activities, formal education, and collaboration with women were associated with adoption. These findings suggest that men and women were driven by distinct concerns, interests, and motivations when adopting new Chagas disease prevention strategies. Participatory community interventions that seek to generate health knowledge and foster collaborations to reduce health risk should address gender differences.
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    Climatic variability, societal changes, and dengue disease in Bangladesh : Technical Progress Report - 08
    (Department of Public Health, North South University, Dhaka, BD, 2014-04) Ahsan, G.U.; Haque, C. Emdad
    Trends of rapid climate change, urbanization, massive increases in air travel and other socio-economic processes and changes in infrastructure, have collectively contributed to transformation in social-ecological conditions, resulting in various vector-borne diseases in Bangladesh including dengue disease. This research project encompasses the development of a multi-scale (local, national and global) with a multi-sectoral approach and interventions that enable prevention and control dengue in Bangladesh.
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    Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2015-02) Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue
    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.
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    Effectiveness and feasibility of long-lasting insecticide-treated curtains and water container covers for dengue vector control in Colombia : a cluster randomised trial
    (Oxford University Press, 2015) Quintero, Juliana; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Cortés, Sebastian; García, Diana; Alcala, Lucas; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel
    The combination of long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) curtains with targeted interventions on water containers showed a significant reduction in vector densities when measured through pupae per person index (PPI). If a mosquito was able to escape the effects of the curtains, they would still encounter difficulties in laying eggs and, even if successful, the emerging mosquitoes would be killed by treated container covers. This underlines the importance of combined vector control strategies. In the intervention group, the PPI index showed a clear decline of 71% compared with 25% in the control group. Program acceptance was achieved through community participation strategies.
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    Workshop “A Temática Saúde e Ambiente no Contexto Educacional para o Bem-Estar das Populações Amazônicas”, Cuiaba, 26 a 27 de outubro de 1995
    (Insituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 1995) Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso. Insituto de Saúde Coletiva