The Governance and Justice program seeks to foster better and more inclusive governance and justice systems so that everyone can lead more secure and prosperous lives.
Free speech, rule of law, access to justice — all are under threat, as global indicators show downward trends. The past characterization of the developing world as comprised of many poor, but relatively stable countries no longer holds. Violent conflict has emerged as a central challenge to development, affecting even countries that have experienced growth.
The impact of insecurity is far-ranging, from the forced marriage of young girls to outbreaks of violence during political protests and elections, and the violence and fear that often permeates the slums of rapidly growing cities. This insecurity is particularly devastating for women, youth, and other vulnerable groups who tend to have less access to the resources needed to protect themselves, including political influence, economic opportunities, and an effective justice system.
Existing formal justice systems do not allow most people to make their voices heard or hold decision-makers accountable. In many parts of the world, public institutions often fail to reach the poor and vulnerable. Moreover, informal and traditional forms of governance and justice need to be carefully understood for their potential to either improve, or reinforce, the situations of vulnerable groups.
The program focuses on two crosscutting objectives:
Create safer spaces, free from violent conflict and insecurity
Empower vulnerable groups, particularly women and girls, to prevent and overcome gender violence
Le programme Gouvernance et justice vise à favoriser l’établissement de systèmes de gouvernance et de justice meilleurs et plus inclusifs, afin que tout le monde puisse mener une vie plus prospère en toute sécurité.
La liberté d’expression, la primauté du droit et l’accès à la justice sont tous menacés, selon les indicateurs mondiaux qui indiquent des tendances à la baisse. La façon dont les pays en développement étaient caractérisés par le passé, soit que ceux-ci comprenaient de nombreux pays pauvres, mais relativement stables, ne tient plus. Les conflits violents sont devenus un obstacle de taille au développement et ils touchent même les pays qui ont connu une croissance.
L’insécurité a des incidences à grande échelle, du mariage forcé de jeunes filles aux flambées de violence durant les manifestations politiques et électorales, en passant par la violence et la peur qui se répandent souvent dans les bidonvilles des villes en croissance rapide. Cette insécurité est particulièrement dévastatrice pour les femmes, les jeunes et d’autres groupes vulnérables, qui ont souvent moins accès aux ressources nécessaires pour se protéger, y compris l’influence politique, les débouchés économiques et un système judiciaire efficace.
Les systèmes de justice officiels existants ne permettent pas à la plupart des gens de se faire entendre ou d’obliger les décideurs à rendre des comptes. On constate que, dans de nombreuses régions du monde, les institutions publiques ne parviennent que rarement à aider les pauvres et les vulnérables. De plus, les formes de gouvernance et de justice informelles et traditionnelles doivent être soigneusement comprises pour pouvoir améliorer ou renforcer la situation des groupes vulnérables.
Le programme est axé sur deux objectifs transversaux :
créer des espaces plus sûrs, sans conflit violent ni insécurité;
permettre aux groupes vulnérables, particulièrement les femmes et les filles, de prévenir et de surmonter la violence fondée sur le sexe.
Browsing Governance and Justice / Gouvernance et justice by Title
(2018-12) Ben Salah, Nizar; Al Nighaoui, Imen; Bahrini, Slim; Canavan, Kristen
The study brochure provides a brief outline of the project. It aims to establish the centrality of inclusion within deradicalization and prevention programs that could respond to violent extremism in the context of post-revolutionary Tunisia.
This background note addresses issues of youth radicalization in Tunisia, context, and history. It discusses convergent trends of increasing violent extremism with democratization, as well as effects of extremism/terrorism on the economy. The number of Tunisians joining radical groups either in Tunisia or in foreign groups raises concerns. The paper traces acts of terrorism and violence in the country’s recent history, with a multi-pronged response by the Tunisian government based on four pillars: prevention, protection, prosecution and response to attacks.
The main topics of the conference (2019) during the two days were: inclusion of Tunisian youth and its impact on preventing and mitigating Violent Extremism, and; the dilemma of the returning Tunisian Foreign Fighters. Findings are from the first phase of the research. Historically, religion has influenced traditions and social norms. However, societal conservatism has substituted religion. According to the research participants, community influence along with traditions and social norms are the basis of conservatism. Civic Engagement can provide a sense of belonging to a community of youth and help them maintain personal and professional skills.
This policy brief presents some findings from a study that considered the challenges and opportunities presented by a hybrid justice system in relation to addressing sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), which remains among the most frequently committed crimes. Despite the criminalisation of rape there is little expectation that perpetrators will face serious consequences. Liberia’s justice system is three-fold: a formal justice system modelled on that of the USA; a customary legal system mostly worked through Chief’s (or customary) courts; and a ‘traditional’ Indigenous system.
The first part of the chapter establishes the extent to which Kenya’s National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) adheres to the principles of administrative law, such as legality and reasonableness. Part II discusses the norms of effective environmental governance. Part III analyzes the administration of Kenya’s environmental law regime, focusing on public participation in rule making, the administration of the tools of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental restoration orders (ERO), and the resolution of environmental disputes. Although EIA and ERO have become critical tools, existing procedures often do not facilitate meaningful public participation in EIA licensing decision-making.
This paper examines the impact of administrative law on the rule of law and governance in Malawi, using environmental agencies as a case study. Its findings expose a number of limitations of administrative law in facilitating good environmental governance. These include regulatory or power capture by “invisible Barons” who wield their power to undermine the effectiveness of administrative law and the rule of law. Procedural fairness and improprieties are drawn from specific cases, then analyzed and discussed. The study found that political considerations affect the rate and direction of rulemaking more than judicial considerations.
This paper examines the operations of administrative law in Malawi, and how its mechanisms influence the ways in which environmental agencies function. Existing literature suggests that judicial review has become an important tool for testing the compatibility of the actions of government agencies against the Constitution. The increasing importance of administrative law in environmental governance has also been documented. Malawian Courts assert that the purpose of judicial review is to ensure fair treatment of applicants. However, study findings show that political considerations affect the rate and direction of rulemaking more than judicial considerations.
This case study focuses on the Malawi Revenue Authority (MRA), to establish the nature of public participation in rule making, application and adjudication of disputes; and to determine the role and impact of judicial review, alongside parliamentary and presidential oversight on agency functions. The attainment of democratic governance requires that institutions of governance abide by principles that further transparency, openness, accountability, and the rule of law. Analysis shows there are a multiplicity of adjudicating bodies under revenue laws. Most of the bodies have not been constituted and those that are operational are not accessible to members of the general public.
The paper presents results of one component of the study of the interplay between administrative law and local governance in East Africa. In Malawi’s case, influenced by the experience of a one-party dictatorship wielding virtually unlimited power and eroding individual liberties, courts have emphasised the need to keep authoritarian state power in check to prevent a repeat of the excesses of the past. At the same time, courts have subordinated judicial/legal rulings to political or bureaucratic judgment. This study examines rule making, implementation and adjudication practices of administrative agencies, and evaluates the impact of judicial review on public administration.